Understanding climate
for the benefit of society

Carbon system

The processes that regulate the flows of carbon in the earth system on multiple timescales.


The researchers of the Bjerknes Centre are divided into four research areas: The Carbon system is one of these.


Research focus

The Research Group RG3 Biogeochemical Cycles at the Bjerknes Centre focuses on the following issues:

  • How much of the human induced CO2 emissions are taken up by the ocean?
  • What are the consequences of the oceanic CO2 uptake in terms of ocean acidification?
  • What controls natural variations of the carbon cycle?
  • What do biogeochemical tracers tell us about water mass formation and ocean circulation?
  • What are the feedbacks between the climate system and biogeochemical processes in the ocean and on land?
  • How to include the marine sedimentary paleoclimate record in global ocean models?
  • How to include vegetation and soils in global climate models?


Keywords: carbon cycle, climate feedbacks, sustainability, glacial cycles, nutrients, oxygen.


Strategic projects


LOES,  Low and overshot emission scenarios – from a high to a low carbon society. Leaders: Jörg Schwinger and Hanna Lee.


Are Olsen – Karbonsystem, Carbon System



“The transformation to a low carbon society has to happen in the next ten years and insight into the carbon system is essential for this process”, says Are Olsen, leader of the Carbon System research theme.


“It is essential for defining the risks associated with the various possible emission pathways, for planning climate actions, and for evaluating their efficiency in reducing atmospheric CO2.


Our central goal is to provide this insight to society by developing and using the best possible models and observations.”

Carbon system research group


Research leader
Are Olsen


Jörg Schwinger


Medlemmer / Members

  • Inge Althuizen
  • Meike Becker
  • Lei Cai
  • Heather Cannaby
  • Casper Tai Christiansen
  • Xabier Dávila
  • Tor de Lange
  • Dagmar Egelkraut
  • Salma K.D.E Elageed
  • Filippa Fransner
  • Shuang Gao
  • Nadine Goris
  • Kjell Gundersen
  • Aud Halbritter
  • Bjarte Hannisdal
  • Siri Vatsø Haugum
  • Christoph Heinze
  • Solfrid Hjøllo
  • Kristin Jackson
  • Francesca Jaroszynska
  • Emil Jeansson
  • Truls Johannessen
  • Steve Jones
  • Augustin Kessler
  • Alexander Korablev
  • Camilla Landa
  • Siv Lauvset
  • Hanna Lee
  • Lydia Messingfeld
  • Anne Morée
  • Erik Askov Mousing
  • Pål Tore Mørkved
  • Ulysses Ninnemann
  • Abdirahman Omar
  • Benjamin Pfeil
  • Nicholas Roden
  • Richard Sanders
  • Margit Simon
  • Øystein Skagseth
  • Ingunn Skjelvan
  • Morten Skogen
  • Jerry Tjiputra
  • Vigdis Vandvik
  • Tsuyoshi Wakamatsu
  • Çağlar Yumruktepe

The researchers at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research work with observations, theory and climate models. The researchs is organised in four thematic groups:

  • Global climate – led by Camille Li
  • Polar climate – led by Kerim Nisancioglu
  • The Carbon system – led by Are Olsen
  • Climate hazards – led by Nele Meckler